求《海狼》中所表现的杰克伦敦的人生理念,要英文版的详细点的。

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月冷华凝
2009-03-25
月冷华凝
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  Plot
  Like The Call of the Wild, The Sea Wolf tells the story of a soft, domesticated protagonist, in this novel's case an intellectual man named Humphrey van Weyden, forced to become tough and self-reliant by exposure to cruelty and brutality. The story starts with him onboard a San Francisco ferry, called Martinez, which collides with another ship in the fog and sinks. He is set adrift in the sea, eventually being picked up ("rescued" is not the right word) by Wolf Larsen. Larsen is the captain of the seal-hunting schooner Ghost. Brutal and cynical, yet also highly intelligent and intellectual (though highly biased in his opinions as he was self-taught), he rules over his ship and terrorizes the crew with the aid of his exceptionally great physical strength. Van Weyden adequately describes him as an individualist, a hedonist, and a materialist. As Larsen does not believe in the immortality of the soul, he finds no meaning in his life save survival and pleasure and has come to despise all human life and deny its value. Being interested in someone capable of intellectual disputes, he somewhat takes care of "Hump" while forcing him to become a cabin boy, do menial work, and learn to fight to protect himself from a brutal crew.

  A vast majority of the story concerns itself with Humphrey's growth as a character, from self-described wimp to self-sufficient individual. Such episodes include his learning of the ship's workings, his rivalry with Thomas Mudgridge (the ship's cook, which climaxes with a standoff that Humphrey wins), and his tense relationship with Wolf Larsen. He is promoted throughout the story, from cabin boy to mate.

  A key event in the story is an attempted mutiny against Wolf Larsen by several members of the crew. The organizers of the mutiny are Leach and Johnson. Johnson had previously been beaten severely by Larsen, and Leach was a close friend of Johnson, motivating the two. The first attempt is by sending Larsen overboard, however he manages to climb back onto the ship. Searching for his assailant, he ventures into the sleeping quarters, located beneath the main deck, the only exit being a ladder. Several, at least seven men, take part in the mutiny and attack Larsen. Larsen however, demonstrating his inhuman endurance, strength, and conviction, manages to fight his way through the mob, climb the ladder with several men hanging off him, and escape relatively unharmed. He later gets his vengeance by torturing his crew, and constantly claiming that he was going to murder Leach and Thompson at his earliest convenience, being after the hunting season is done, as he can't afford to lose any crew. He later allows them to be lost to the sea when they attempt to flee on a hunting boat.

  Following this, the Ghost picks up another set of castaways, including a woman poet named Maud Brewster. Both Wolf Larsen and Humphrey immediately feel attraction to her, due to her intelligence and "female delicacy". Humphrey sees her as his first true love. He strives to protect her from the crew, the horrors of the sea, and Wolf Larsen. As this happens, tension begins to rise between Wolf Larsen and his brother, Death Larsen, with the two aggressively competing for seals. Wolf goes as far as kidnapping several of Death's crew and forcing them into servitude to fill his own ranks. During one of Larsen's intense headaches, which render him near immobile, Humphrey steals a boat and flees with Maud.

  The two eventually land on an uninhabited island, heavily populated with seals. They hunt, build shelter and a fire, and survive for several days, utilizing the strength they gained while on the Ghost. The Ghost eventually crashes on the island, with Wolf Larsen the only crew member. In vengeance, Death Larsen had tracked his brother, bought his crew, destroyed his sails, and set Wolf adrift at sea. It is purely by chance that Humphrey and Maud meet Wolf again.

  Wolf's headaches only grow worse, and they are revealed to be strokes. The three coexist to some extent. Humphrey obtains all of the firearms left on the ship, but cannot bring himself to murder Larsen, who does not threaten him. After one stroke, Larsen is rendered blind. Humphrey and Maud decide they can repair the ship, but Larsen, who is intent to die on the island and take them with him, sabotages any repairs they make. He feigns paralysis, and attempts to murder Humphrey when he foolishly draws within arm's reach, but just then is hit with another stroke that leaves him blind and the left side of his body paralyzed. His condition only worsens, he loses usage of his remaining arm, leg and voice. Maud and Humphrey, unable to bring themselves to leave him to rot, care for him. Despite this kindness, he continues his resistance, setting fire to his mattress. Finally, during a violent storm, Wolf Larsen passes away.

  Humphrey finishes repairing the Ghost, and he and Maud set sail. They give Larsen a burial at sea, an act mirroring an incident Humphrey witnessed when he was first rescued. The story ends with them being rescued by an American revenue cutter.

  Humphrey van Weyden
  Humphrey starts the book weak of body but strong of mind. He grows stronger as the story progresses, physically through the manual labor, and spiritually as he endures the various hardships. Upon meeting Maud, he realizes just how much he has changed, gaining muscle mass, a more rugged appearance, and a different outlook on life.

  Humphrey has a unique relationship with Larsen. Though he is in effect the captain's prisoner, Larsen shows him favoritism and occasionally acts as a father figure, giving advice on how to survive aboard the ship. Though Larsen claims to take Humphrey aboard primarily because he needed an additional hand, he also seems to genuinely believe he is doing something good for Humphrey. He claims that Humphrey has never "stood on his own legs", meaning he has never had to work and always relied on his inheritance from his father to survive. Throughout the book, Larsen compliments Humphrey on his growth, eventually telling him he is proud of him, and calling him a real man, able to stand on his own.

  Humphrey has an ideology that is in sharp contrast to Larsen's. He believes in the internal soul, inherent good, and that men should act justly under all circumstances. His views are constantly being challenged by Larsen, who encourages him to give into his desires and behave in an immoral fashion. By the end of the story, Larsen is annoyed that Humphrey still clings to his beliefs and refuses to murder him, despite all the suffering Larsen has put him through.

  Wolf Larsen
  Larsen is a complex character. Physically, he is described as approximately five feet ten with a massive build: broad shoulders and a deep chest. Humphrey describes Larsen as beautiful on more than one occasion, perfectly symmetrical, a perfect specimen of masculinity. Yet, despite this, his true strength is described as something more primal, more primitive and animalistic. He is extremely intelligent, having taught himself a variety of fields, including mathematics, literature, science, philosophy, and technology. Throughout the story, he displays almost inhuman amounts of strength, even for a man of his size and build.

  Larsen was born in Norway, though he is of Danish descent. He spent his entire life at sea; cabin-boy at twelve, ship's boy at fourteen, seaman at sixteen, able seaman at seventeen. It is unclear when he obtained the Ghost and became captain. He claims to have several brothers, but only Death Larsen is mentioned.

  Larsen displays characteristics of a sociopath. He has absolutely no fault with manipulating and bullying people to better serve his needs. He routinely takes men hostage, castaways like Humphrey or seal hunters from other ships, and uses them to fill his own ranks when needed. He murders and abuses people without hesitation, seeing no value in life. He enjoys the intellectual stimulation that Humphrey and Maud provide, but Humphrey describes their relationship as one between a king and his jester. He is only a toy to Larsen.

  Despite his immense internal strength, Larsen at times show signs of weakness and depression. He is envious of his brother, because his brother is simple minded, and so is able to enjoy life unburdened. He also claims he is envious of Maud and Humphrey's faith, but later says it is only his mind, and he knows he is better off without it. He also speaks of frustration that he never amounted to anything great. He claims he had all the determination and will, but was never given the proper opportunity.

  Interestingly, Wolf is not Larsen's real given name, his real given name is never spoken. Dialogue heavily implies that he is called "Wolf" because of his nature and viciousness, similar reasons that his brother is called "Death".

  Background
  The personal character of the novel's antagonist "Wolf Larsen" was attributed to a real sailor London had known, Captain Alex MacLean. London, who was called "Wolf" by his close friends, also used a picture of a wolf on his bookplate, and named his mansion "Wolf House." Given that Hump's experiences in the novel bear some resemblance to experiences London had, or heard told about, when he sailed on the Sophia Sutherland, the autodidact sailor Wolf Larsen has been compared to the autodidact sailor Jack London.

  Originally from Cape Breton Nova Scotia, MacLean sailed to the Pacific side of North America when he was just twenty-one and worked there for thirty-five years as a sailor and sealer. His achievements and escapades while in the Victoria British Columbia fleet in the 1880s laid the foundation for his status as a folk hero.

  The real life Captain Alec MacLean was born May 15, 1858 in East Bay, Nova Scotia. He did sail mostly in the Pacific North West with his brother Captain Dan MacLean. Capt. Alec was at one time the Sheriff of Nome, Alaska. The MacLean Captains maintained their ties to Cape Breton Island despite having spent much of their lives sailing the Pacific Coast and do have living descendants (The Highland Heart of Nova Scotia, Neil MacNeil).

  London's intention in writing the The Sea-Wolf was "an attack on Nietzsche's super-man philosophy." The novel also contains references to Herbert Spencer, Omar Khayyám, Shakespeare, and John Milton.

  The real-life USRC Bear and its color commander, Captain Michael A. Healy, each icons along the late 19th century Alaskan coast, were reportedly inspirations for London when writing The Sea-Wolf. (The Bear is the American revenue cutter which comes to the rescue at the end of his story). In 1930, the Bear, then a museum ship in Oakland, California, portrayed a ship for a film version of The Sea-Wolf.
刘子德
2009-03-16
刘子德
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内容简介:一艘渡船在旧金山湾失事,三十五岁的文学评论家Hamphrey被捕海豹船"魔鬼号"船长海狼Larsen救起。由于船上大副的死亡,缺少人手的Larsen强迫Hamphrey在船上做茶房。Hamphrey目睹了水手和猎人们的争斗,Larsen的冷酷无情。比一般水手都强壮的Larsen以自己的铁拳统治着这名符其实的"魔鬼号"。然而Hamphrey也发现,Larsen也并非全无头脑,只是他那抛开任何微小的利他行为,只想到像酵母一样,大的吞掉小的,强的吞掉弱的,以获得个人的持续生存的人生理论是Hamphrey这样满脑子理想、情操一类事物的文明人所无法接受的。Hamphrey在船上学到了航海知识,身体也强壮起来。
魔鬼号偶然救起了在轮船失事中幸存的Maud Brewster。Hamphrey心中燃起了爱的火花,他终于和Maud找机会逃走,由于偏离了航线,不得不在一个海豹聚集的小岛上暂时安顿下来,过了一段艰苦的努力生存的日子。众叛亲离的Larsen和魔鬼号也撞上了这个小岛。船上的水手和猎人不堪Larsen的压迫,又禁不住有人故意的金钱诱惑,全部抛开魔鬼号去为Larsen的敌人工作。Larsen也不再是那个身体强壮,坚不可摧的样子了,经常的头痛,可能是头部的瘤造成了他的迅速虚弱甚至失明。Hamphrey和Maud努力将魔鬼号修好,其间受到Larsen多次阻挠。船终于修好了,Larsen则出现了偏瘫,生命之火慢慢地熄灭了。 Hamphrey与Maud将Larsen海葬,不久之后,他们获救了。
《海狼》在直到1999年的八十多年间中,曾十几次被搬上银幕,杰克伦敦在1913年的版本中,出演一位水手。
读书笔记:
《海狼》从纯文学的角度来讲,并不是一部非常成功的作品,海狼拉尔森是一个怪人,有强壮的身体和灵活的头脑,以野蛮人的方式与野蛮人殴斗,又以文明人的方式与文明人交谈。他的头脑中满是野蛮的思想,他读文明书只是为了从中找出可以支持自己观点的论据。情节上,几乎没有什么波动,只是讲船上争来斗去的琐事,尤其后期爱情的出现是那么突兀,与书前半部硬冷的基调完全不同。亨甫莱对拉尔森态度的变化也很奇怪,而且没有预兆,完全为爱情而爱情,使亨甫莱十足像个傻瓜。还有那莫名其妙的头疼加失明,为无坚可摧的拉尔森的失败找到了借口。
JL大多并不以情节取胜,他更善于细致刻划某一场景、画面或短小的一串动作,而不是错综复杂的人物关系和立体丰满的人物形象。
此书有诸多不足,但仍然值得一读。它谈到那永远无人可解的难题:"人为什么要活着?"按拉尔森的说法,"生命像是酵母,酶,一种活动的东西......大吞小才可以维持他们的活动,强食弱才能保持他们的力量。""(水手)为了要吃要喝而活动,因为可以继续活动,就是这么样。他们为肚子而生活,为生活而吃饱肚子,这是一个循环。"
拉尔森有一套很奇怪的理论,亨甫莱称他为唯物主义者,而拉尔森的唯物主义不仅不相信上帝、永生的存在,甚至不相信人的精神。在他的眼里,人与世界上千千万万动物一样,纯粹是为生存而生存,什么理想、道德,一切不能用来补充力量的空谈都是屁话。
对于生与死,拉尔森秉持着JL一贯的态度,只不过表达方式有所变化:"蠕动是卑劣的,但是停止蠕动,像是泥土顽石,是不堪设想的......生命本身就是不如意,但是向前望到死亡,更是不如意。"--说句题外话,我无法相信持此种观点的JL会自杀,当然人的观点是可能变化的。
对拉尔森最好的总结是书中这句原话,"我相信他十足是个原人,生晚了几千年,或者说许多代,在这文明达到高峰的世纪,是一种时代错误。
不知不觉由拉尔森想到原始与文明的对立。文明使我们大多数人在作为一个自然人的层面上,变得柔弱,随着大脑的高度发达,与工具的不断发展,人类已经很退化了。而且文明不可避免地夹杂着虚伪、欺诈。原始与文明,到底怎样是进化,怎样是退化呢?
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yaoyuncong123
2009-03-30
yaoyuncong123
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The sea-wolf is jack London's masterpieces. A ship in decimal describes called "the devil" in hunting seals on a sailing in a touching a painstaking struggle and the deep-rooted love story. In the novel "the Wolf" is not only the captain has name of authors, a study is synonymous with superman, the author works lead readers into the wilderness, straightforward bold and unconstrained life experience of wild ruthless and feel the dark side of the ruthless people born with primitive life brilliance, Also exposes the capitalist society, the client to glance at the toughness of labor personnel suffering and sympathy. In addition, the author by Nietzsche's influence, and also have fully in the performance.
The famous American novelist jack London's writings, the sea-wolf is recognized as the sea is subject to write in one of the best war novels. This story written and have not only in the literature flavor, epic won great success, but also on the screen is a welcome. Stories in London in the north Pacific hunting seal experience: he ministered ship is in London a seal hunting ship, homework route is also from San Francisco bay into Japanese waters. The sea-wolf about "the devil", sailing boat, the seal hunting activities, Marine mysterious landscape climate and Marine life many sailors are described as jack London's experience, and experience to engage. Novels focuses on the sea Wolf "shape" larson and heng just lai, who put two characters, through the conflict between the different ideas, encourage the writer for fusion of the philosophy of life, as some critics say, this works reflect London heart "the idealism and the materialism and conflict, the conflict" fraud.
原文:《海狼》是杰克·伦敦的长篇名著之一。小数描写了在一艘名为“魔鬼号” 的以捕猎海豹为生的帆船上发生的一场动人心弦的生一煞费苦心搏斗和刻骨铭心的爱情故事。小说中的“狼”不仅是船长莱森的名字,对作者而言,一学是超人的代名词,作者通过作品带领读者进入豪放粗犷荒野,体验蛮荒生活的冷酷无情,感受人民生凶残的黑暗面和原始生命的光辉;同时也揭露了资本主义社会的瞥端,表现了对劳动人员顽强意志的歌颂和苦难生活的同情。此外,作者所受尼采和斯宾赛的影响在作品中也有充分的表现。
美国著名小说家杰克伦敦的著作,《海狼》被公认为是海上题材里写得最好的小说之一。这个故事写得动人而有史诗韵味,不仅在文学上获得了很大的成功,而且在银幕上也受到了欢迎。故事取材于伦敦在北太平洋捕捉海豹的经历:他在伦敦供职的船正是一艘海豹捕猎船,作业路线也正是从旧金山湾到日本海域。《海狼》中关于“魔鬼”号海豹捕猎船、其航行活动、海上神秘莫测的风光气候以及水手海上生活等的许多描述都是以杰克•伦敦的亲身经历和经验为蓝本的。小说着重塑造了“海狼”拉森和亨甫莱•凡•卫登两个人物,通过两者的冲突表现了不同思想的磋撞,融合了作家本人对于人生哲学的思考,正如一些评论家所说,该作品反映了伦敦内心“理想主义和物质主义的冲突,良知与欺诈行为的冲突”。
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