phonemic 和phonetic分别是什么意思啊?

fdmote 问题未开放回答
推荐于2017-10-03 04:47:08 最佳答案

而phonemic强调的是本体因素不同,就是音标本就不同. 语音差异

1. 语音的. 表示语音的,音形一致的


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多元广宇 | 发布于2006-03-29
1. Design feature:are features that define our human languages,such as arbitrariness,duality,creativity,displacement,cultural transmission,etc.
2.Function: the use of language tocommunicate,to think ,etc.Language functions inclucle imformative function,interpersonal function,performative function,interpersonal function,performative function,emotive function,phatic communion,recreational function and metalingual function.
3. etic: a term in contrast with emic which originates from American linguist Pike’s distinction of phonetics and phonemics.Being etic mans making far too many, as well as behaviously inconsequential,differentiations,just as was ofter the case with phonetic vx.phonemic analysis in linguistics proper.
4. emic: a term in contrast with etic which originates from American linguist Pike’s distinction of phonetics and phonemics.An emic set of speech acts and events must be one that is validated as meaningful via final resource to the native members of a speech communith rather than via qppeal to the investigator’s ingenuith or intuition alone.
5. synchronic: a kind of description which takes a fixed instant(usually,but not necessarily,the present),as its point of observation.Most grammars are of this kind.
6.diachronic:study of a language is carried through the course of its history.
7. prescriptive: the study of a language is carried through the course of its history.
8. prescriptive: a kind of linguistic study in which things are prescribed how ought to be,i.e.laying down rules for language use.
9. descriptive: a kind of linguistic study in which things are just described.
10. arbitrariness: one design feature of human language,which refers to the face that the forms of linguistic signs bear no natural relationship to their meaning.
11. duality: one design feature of human language,which refers to the property of having two levels of are composed of elements of the secondary.level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization.
12. displacement: one design feature of human language,which means human language enable their users to symbolize objects,events and concepts which are not present c in time and space,at the moment of communication.
13. phatic communion: one function of human language,which refers to the social interaction of language.
14. metalanguage: certain kinds of linguistic signs or terms for the analysis and description of particular studies.
15. macrolinguistics: he interacting study between language and language-related disciplines such as psychology,sociology,ethnograph,science of law and artificial intelligence etc.Branches of macrolinguistics include psycholinguistics,sociolinguistics, anthropological linguistics,et
16. competence: language user’s underlying knowledge about the system of rules.
17. performance: the actual use of language in concrete situation.
18. langue: the linguistic competence of the speaker.
19. parole: the actual phenomena or data of linguistics(utterances).
20.Articulatory phonetics: the study of production of speechsounds.
21.Coarticulation: a kind of phonetic process in which simultaneous or overlapping articulations are involved..Coarticulation can be further divided into anticipatory coarticulation and perseverative coarticulation.
22.Voicing: pronouncing a sound (usually a vowel or a voiced consonant) by vibrating the vocal cords.
23.Broad and narrow transcription: the use of a simple set of symbols in transcription is called broad transcription;the use of a simple set of symbols in transcription is called broad transcription;while,the use of more specific symbols to show more phonetic detail is referred to as narrow transcription.
24. Consonant: are sound segments produced by constricting or obstructing the vocal tract at some place to divert,impede,or completely shut off the flow of air in the oral cavity.
25. Phoneme: the abstract element of sound, identified as being distinctive in a particular language.
26. Allophone:any of the different forms of a phoneme(eg.<th>is an allophone of /t/in English.When /t/occurs in words like step,it is unaspirated<t>.Both<th>and <t>are allophones of the phoneme/t/.
27. Vowl:are sound segments produced without such obstruction,so no turbulence of a total stopping of the air can be perceived.
28.Manner of articulation: in the production of consonants,manner of articulation refers to the actual relationship between the articulators and thus the way in which the air passes through certain parts of the vocal tract.
29.Place of articulation: in the production of consonants,place of articulation refers to where in the vocal tract there is approximation,narrowing,or the obstruction of air.
30.Distinctive features: a term of phonology,i.e.a property which distinguishes one phoneme from another.
31. Complementary distribution: the relation between tow speech sounds that never occur in the same environment.Allophones of the same phoneme are usually in complementary distribution.
32. IPA: the abbreviation of International Phonetic Alphabet,which is devised by the International Phonetic Association in 1888 then it has undergong a number of revisions.IPA is a comprised system employing symbols of all sources,such as Roman small letters,italics uprighted,obsolete letters,Greek letters,diacritics,etc.
33.Suprasegmental:suprasegmental featuresare those aspects of speech that involve more than single sound segments.The principal supra-segmental features aresyllable,stress,tone,,and intonation.
34.Suprasegmental:aspects of speech that involve more than single sound segments.The principle suprasegmental features are syllable,stress,tone,and intonation.
35. morpheme:the smallest unit of language in terms of relationship between expression and content,a unit that cannot be divided into further small units without destroying or drastically altering the meaning,whether it is lexical or grammatical.
36. compoundoly morphemic words which consist wholly of free morphemes,such as classroom,blackboard,snowwhite,etc.
37.inflection: the manifestation of grammatical relationship through the addition of inflectional affixes,such as number,person,finiteness,aspect and case,which do not change the grammatical class of the stems to which they are attached.
38.affix: the collective term for the type of formative that can be used only when added to another morpheme(the root or stem).
39. derivation: different from compounds,derivation shows the relation between roots and affixes.
40. root: the base from of a word that cannot further be analyzed without total lass of identity.
41.allomorph: any of the different form of a morpheme.For example,in English the plural mortheme is but it is pronounced differently in different environments as/s/in cats,as/z/ in dogs and as/iz/ in classes.So/s/,/z/,and /iz/ are all allomorphs of the plural morpheme.
42.Stem: any morpheme or combination of morphemes to which an inflectional affix can be added.
43. bound morpheme: an element of meaning which is structurally dependent on the world it is added to,e.g. the plural morpheme in “dog’s”. morpheme: an element of meaning which takes the form of an independent word.
45.lexeme:A separate unit of meaning,usually in the form of a word(e.g.”dog in the manger”)
46.lexicon: a list of all the words in a language assigned to various lexical categories and provided with semantic interpretation.
47.grammatical word: word expressing grammatical meanings,such conjunction,prepositions,articles and pronouns.
48. lexical word: word having lexical meanings,that is ,those which refer to substance,action and quality,such as nouns,verbs,adjectives,and verbs. a word whose membership is in principle infinite or unlimited,such as nouns,verbs,adjectives,and many adverbs.
50. blending: a relatively complex form of compounding,in which two words are blended by joining the initial part of the first word and the final part of the second word,or by joining the initial parts of the two words.
51. loanvoord: a process in which both form and meaning are borrowed with only a slight adaptation,in some cases,to eh phonological system of the new language that they enter.
52.loanblend: a process in which part of the form is native and part is borrowed, but the meaning is fully borrowed.
53. leanshift: a process in which the meaning is borrowed,but the form is native.
54.acronym: is made up form the first letters of the name of an organization,which has a heavily modified headword.
55.loss: the disappearance of the very sound as a morpheme in the phonological system.
56. back-formation: an abnormal type of word-formation where a shorter word is derived by deleting an imagined affix from a long form already in the language.
57.assimilation: the change of a sound as a result of the influence of an adjacent sound,which is more specifically called.”contact”or”contiguous”assimilation.
58.dissimilation: the influence exercised.By one sound segment upon the articulation of another, so that the sounds become less alike,or different.
59.folk etymology: a change in form of a word or phrase,resulting from an incorrect popular nation of the origin or meaning of the term or from the influence of more familiar terms mistakenly taken to be analogous
60.category:parts of speech and function,such as the classification of words in terms of parts of speech,the identification of terms of parts of speech,the identification of functions of words in term of subject,predicate,etc.
61.concord: also known as agreement,is the requirement that the forms of two or more words in a syntactic relationship should agree with each other in terms of some categories.
62. syntagmatic relation between one item and others in a sequence,or between elements which are all present.
63.paradigmatic relation: a relation holding between elements replaceable with each other at a particular place in a structure,or between one element present and he others absent.
64.immediate constituent analysis: the analysis of a sentence in terms of its immediate constituents---word groups(or phrases),which are in trun analyzed into the immediate constituents of their own,and the process goes on until the ultimate constituents are reached.
65.endocentric construction: one construction whose distribution is functionally equivalent,or approaching equivalence,to one of its constituents,which serves as the centre,or head, of the whole.Hence an endocentric construction is also known as a headed construction.
66.exocentric construction: a construction whose distribution is not functionally equivalent to any to any of its constituents.
67.deep structure: the abstract representation of the syntactic properties of a construction,i.e.the underlying level of structural relations between its different constituents ,such sa the relation between,the underlying subject and its verb,or a verb and its object.
68.surfacte structure: the final stage in the syntactic derivation of a construction,which closely corresponds to the structural organization of a construction people actually produce and receive.
69.c-command: one of the similarities,or of the more general features, in these two government relations,is technically called constituent command,c-command for short.
70.government and binding theory: it is the fourth period of development Chomsky’s TG Grammar, which consists of X-bar theme: the basis,or the starting point,of the utterance.
71.communicative dynamism: the extent to which the sentence element contributes to the development of the communication.
72.ideational function: the speaker’s experience of the real world,including the inner world of his own consciousness.
73. interpersonal function: the use of language to establish and maintain social relations: for the expression of social roles,which include the communication roles created by language itself;and also for getting things done,by means of the interaction between one person and another..
74.textual function: the use of language the provide for making links with itself and with features of the situation in which it is used.
75.conceptual meaning: the central part of meaning, which contains logical,cognitive,or denotative content.
76.denotation: the core sense of a word or a phrade that relates it to phenomena in the real world.
77.connotation: a term in a contrast with denotation,meaning the properties of the entity a word denotes.
78.reference: the use of language to express a propostion,meaning the properties of the entity a word denotes.
79.reference: the use of anguage to express a proposition,i.e. to talk about things in context.
80.sense: the literal meaning of a word or an expression,independent of situational context.
81.synonymy: is the technical name for the sameness relation.
82.complentary antonymy: members of a pair in complementary antonymy are complementary to each field completely,such as male,female,absent.
83.gradable antongymy: members of this kind are gradable,such as long:short,big;small,fat;thin,etc.
84.converse antonymy: a special kind of antonymy in that memembers of a pair do not constitute a positive-negative opposition,such as buy;sell,lend,borrow,above,below,etc.
85.relational opposites:converse antonymy in reciprocal social roles,kinship relations,temporal and spatial relations.There are always two entities involved.One presupposes the other. The shorter,better;worse.etc are instances of relational opposites.
86.hyponymy: a relation between tow words,in which the meaning of one word(the superordinate)is included in the meaning of another word(the hyponym)
87.superordinate: the upper term in hyponymy,i.e.the class name.A superordinate usually has several hyponyms.Under animal,for example,there are cats,dogs,pigs,etc,
88.semantic component: a distinguishable element of meaning in a word with two values,e.g<+human>
89.compositionality: a principle for sentence analysis, in which the meaning of a sentence depends on the meanings of the constituent words and the way they are combined.
90.selection restriction:semantic restrictions of the noun phrases that a particular lexical item can take,e.g.regret requires a human subject.
91.prepositional logic: also known as prepositional calculus or sentential calculus,is the study of the truth conditions for propositions:how the truth of a composite propositions and the connection between them.
92.proposition;what is talk about in an utterance,that part of the speech act which has to do with reference.
93.predicate logic: also predicate calculus,which studies the internal structure of simple.
94.assimilation theory: language(sound,word,syntax,etc)change or process by which features of one element change to match those of another that precedes or follows.
95.cohort theory: theory of the perception of spoken words proposed in the mid-1980s.It saaumes a “recognition lexicon”in which each word is represented by a full and independent”recognistion element”.When the system receives the beginning of a relevant acoustic signal,all elements matching it are fully acticated,and,as more of the signal is received,the system tries to match it independently with each of them,Wherever it fails the element is deactivated;this process continues until only one remains active.
96.context effect: this effect help people recognize a word more readily when the receding words provide an appropriate context for it.
97.frequency effect: describes the additional ease with which a word is accessed due to its more frequent usage in language.
98.inference in context: any conclusion drawn from a set of proposition,from something someone has said,and so on.It includes things that,while not following logically,are implied,in an ordinary sense, a specific context.
99.immediate assumption: the reader is supposed to carry out the progresses required to understand each word and its relationship to previous words in the sentence as soon as that word in encountered.
100.language perception:language awareness of things through the physical senses,esp,sight.
101.language comprehension: one of the three strand of psycholinguistic research,which studies the understanding of language.
102.language production: a goal-directed activety,in the sense that people speak and write in orde to make friends,influence people,convey information and so on.
103.language production: a goal-directed activity,in the sense that people speak and write in order to make friends,influence people,concey information and so on.
104.lexical ambiguity:ambiguity explained by reference to lexical meanings:e.g.that of I saw a bat,where a bat might refer to an animal or,among others,stable tennis bat.
105.macroproposition:general propositions used to form an overall macrostructure of the story.
106.modular:which a assumes that the mind is structuied into separate modules or components,each governed by its own principles and operating independently of others.
107.parsing:the task of assigning words to parts of speech with their appropriate accidents,traditionally pupils learning lat in grammar.
108.propositions:whatever is seen as expressed by a sentence which makes a statement.It is a property of propositions that they have truth values.
109.psycholinguistics: is concerned primarily with investigating the psychological reality of linguistic structure.Psycholinguistics can be divided into cognitive psycholing uistics(being concerned above all with making inferences about the content of human mind,and experimental psycholinguistics(being concerned somehow whth empirical matters,such as speed of response to a particular word).
110.psycholinguistic reality: the reality of grammar, a purported account of structures represented in the mind of a speaker.Often opposed,in discussion of the merits of alternative grammars,to criteria of simplicity,elegance,and internal consistency.
111.schemata in text: packets of stored knowledge in language processing.
112.story structure: the way in which various parts of story are arranged or organized.
113.writing process: a series of actions or events that are part of a writing or continuing developmeng.
114.communicative competence: a speaker’s knowledge of the total set of rules,conventions,etc.governing the skilled use of language in a society.Distinguished by D.Hymes in the late 1960s from Chomsley’s concept of competence,in the restricted sense of knowledge of a grammar.
115.gender difference: a difference in a speech between men and women is”genden difference”
116.linguistic determinism: one of the two points in Sapir-Whorf hypothesis,i.e.language determines thought.
117.linguistic relativity: one of the two points in Spir-Whorf hypotheis,i.e.there’s no limit to the structural diversity of languages.
118.linguistic sexism:many differences between me and women in language use are brought about by nothing less than women’s place in society.
119.sociolinguistics of language: one of the two things in sociolinguistics,in which we want to look at structural things by paying attention to language use in a social context.
120.sociolinguistics of society;one of the two things in sociolinguistics,in which we try to understand sociological things of society by examining linguistic phenomena of a speaking community.
121.variationist linguistics: a branch of linguistics,which studies the relationship between speakers’social starts and phonological variations.
122.performative: an utterance by which a speaker does something does something,as apposed to a constative,by which makes a statement which may be true or false.
123.constative: an utterance by which a speaker expresses a proposition which may be true or false.
124.locutionary act: the act of saying something;it’s an act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax,lexicon,and phonology.Namely.,the utterance of a sentence with d
xb3456870 | 发布于2006-03-29