John Milton 的简介

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梦族
推荐于2017-09-30
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  约翰 米尔顿(John Milton)

  约翰.弥尔顿,伟大的诗人,革命文豪。很多文学批评家都认为,英国诗人中除了莎士比亚之外,当首推弥尔顿。他生于伦敦,在剑桥大学的克莱斯特学院获得学士和硕士学位后,便开始专心于诗歌创作。
  1632年至1638年五年间,弥尔顿辞去了政府部门的工作,住到他父亲郊外的别墅中,整日整夜的阅读,他几乎看全了当时所有英语、希腊语、拉丁语和意大利语作品。在这段时期弥尔顿写作了《酒神之假面舞会》等一些作品。1632年至 1637年期间,弥尔顿几乎读遍了当时所有英语,希腊语,拉丁语和意大利语的作品。
  1638年,弥尔顿去欧洲旅行,他在意大利停留了大部分时间。由于英国动荡的宗教局面弥尔顿提前回国,他所写的一些小册子被歪曲,他本人也被烙上了激进分子的烙印。1642年,弥尔顿与玛利·普威尔结婚,新娘只有十七岁。六个星期后,无法处理好新婚生活的玛利回到了她父母家,弥尔顿写信要求离婚。但最终他们和解了,玛利为弥尔顿生下了四个孩子,其中的一个孩子生下没多久就夭折了。1651年,弥尔顿原本就衰弱的视力变得更坏,他彻底失明了。玛利死后,弥尔顿再婚,几个月后,这位新妻子因为难产而死。弥尔顿的第三任妻子是伊丽莎白·明萨尔,这段婚姻维持的较长也较幸福。
  1639年,由于英国动荡的宗教和政治形势,弥尔顿于翌年回国,准备投身于即将爆发的英国革命。弥尔顿随后写出一系列政论文,支持清教徒的革命。1649年他担任克伦威尔派的弥尔顿曾在其国务会议中任拉丁文秘书。他先后写了《为英国人声辩》,《再为英国人声辩》两篇檄文,为”弑君“正名,成功地反击了欧洲的保皇派,自己也因此声望大增。由于过度疲劳,弥尔顿于1652年双目失明,他随即辞去了公职,但从未停止为革命呐喊,在复辟前两个月还发表了《建立共和国的捷径》一文。复辟后,弥尔顿获罪入狱,获释后深居简出,潜心写诗,完成了三首著名长诗的创作。弥尔顿的创作可以分为三个时期:投身革命前,他写了二十三首二四行诗及一些优美的短诗,如《快乐的人》,《幽思的人》,《利西达斯》等;投身革命后的绝大部分作品都是政治性散文,论点鲜明,论证有力,言辞激烈,才华横溢,集中表达了他的理想;革命失败后,弥尔顿在失明后创作了不朽的史诗《失乐园》,《复乐园》和希腊式悲剧《力士参孙》,反映了他不变的信仰,坚定的信心和复杂的心情。在弥尔顿身上,我们不仅可以看到清教主义的严峻,还能够看到人文主义的文雅;两者结合,使他的诗既雄迈又俊美。
  弥尔顿死于1674年11月8日,死后他与乔叟、莎士比亚齐名。
greenswallow
2006-11-10
greenswallow
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III. John Milton
1. Life: educated at Cambridge—visiting the continent—involved into the revolution—persecuted—writing epics.
2. Literary career.
(1) The 1st period was up to 1641, during which time he is to be seen chiefly as a son of the humanists and Elizabethans, although his Puritanism is not absent. L'Allegre and IL Pens eroso (1632) are his early masterpieces, in which we find Milton a true offspring of the Renaissance, a scholar of exquisite taste and rare culture. Next came Comus, a masque. The greatest of early creations was Lycidas, a pastoral elegy on the death of a college mate, Edward King.
(2) The second period is from 1641 to 1654, when the Puritan was in such complete ascendancy that he wrote almost no poetry. In 1641, he began a long period of pamphleteering for the puritan cause. For some 15 years, the Puritan in him alone ruled his writing. He sacrificed his poetic ambition to the call of the liberty for which Puritans were fighting.
(3) The third period is from 1655 to 1671, when humanist and Puritan have been fused into an exalted entity. This period is the greatest in his literary life, epics and some famous sonnets. The three long poems are the fruit of the long contest within Milton of Renaissance tradition and his Puritan faith. They form the greatest accomplishments of any English poet except Shakespeare. In Milton alone, it would seem, Puritanism could not extinguish the lover of beauty. In these works we find humanism and Puritanism merged in magnificence.
3. Major Works
(1) Paradise Lost
a. the plot.
b. characters.
c. theme: justify the ways of God to man.
(2) Paradise Regained.
(3) Samson Agonistes.
4. Features of Milton’s works.
(1) Milton is one of the very few truly great English writers who is also a prominent figure in politics, and who is both a great poet and an important prose writer. The two most essential things to be remembered about him are his Puritanism and his republicanism.
(2) Milton wrote many different types of poetry. He is especially a great master of blank verse. He learned much from Shakespeare and first used blank verse in non-dramatic works.
(3) Milton is a great stylist. He is famous for his grand style noted for its dignity and polish, which is the result of his life-long classical and biblical study.
(4) Milton has always been admired for his sublimity of thought and majesty of expression.

参考资料: http://zhidao.baidu.com/question/11407796.html?si=4

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南宫肆
2006-11-07
南宫肆
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米尔顿(John Milton)

米尔顿(1608-1674),主要作品有《失乐园》、《复乐园》、《斗士参孙》。
最近的沛蒙堆大屠杀 我的失明 我仿佛看见 向光呼吁
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BigChow
2006-11-07
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